As the acronym already indicates, JUSTNature introduces the normative notion of justice. An initial analysis of the scope of nature-based solutions and the role of justice suggests that issues of social and environmental justice are only considered peripherally, and that so far no dedicated research community has addressed the topic. It has been revealed that, although some attention has been directed at questions of social justice (e.g. inclusiveness) and procedural aspects (e.g. co-creation and participative processes), a more comprehensive debate on the role of environmental or climate justice aspects in relation to the activation and implementation of NbS has rarely taken place. This report has the overall objective of determining the scientific knowledge base and developing a framework for assessing NbS potentials to ensure the right to ecological space and the duty of not constraining that of others. It aims to: Provide a conceptual framework, which guides on ethical notions such as equality, inequality, and equity, and on key concepts such as the various dimensions of justice, why justice, why ecological (space) justice, and how to activate NbS accordingly. Introduce an action framework, which outlines the knowledge base for 6 identified (in-) justices challenges, which frame action on Low carbon | High air quality NbS potentials specifically.